While the fight for racial equality began in the sthe non-violent techniques the movement embraced began to pay off during the following decade. Civil rights activists and students across the South challenged segregationand the relatively new technology of television allowed Americans to witness the often brutal response to these protests.
This civil rights movement timeline chronicles important dates during the struggle's second chapter, the early s. President Lyndon B. They order coffee. Despite being denied service, they sit silently and politely at the lunch counter until closing time.
Their action marks the start of the Greensboro sit-ins, which sparks similar protests all over the South. July The downtown Greensboro Woolworth desegregates its lunch counter after six months of sit-ins.
October Martin Luther King Jr. He is arrested along with 51 other protesters on the charge of trespassing. On probation for driving without a valid Georgia license he had an Alabama licensea Dekalb County judge sentences King to four months in prison doing hard labor. Presidential contender John F. Kennedy phones King's wife, Coretta, to offer encouragement, while the candidate's brother, Robert Kennedyconvinces the judge to release King on bail.
This phone call convinces many Black people to support the Democratic ticket. December 5: The Supreme Court hands down a decision in the Boynton v. Virginia case, ruling that segregation on vehicles traveling between states is unlawful because it violates the Interstate Commerce Act.
A mob throws a firebomb onto the bus in which the group near Anniston is riding. Members of the Ku Klux Klan attack the second group in Birmingham after making an arrangement with the local police to allow them 15 minutes alone with the bus. On May The Birmingham group of Freedom Riders is prepared to continue their trip down south, but no bus will agree to take them. They fly to New Orleans instead. On May A new group of young activists join two of the original Freedom Riders to complete the trip.
They are placed under arrest in Montgomery, Alabama. On May President Kennedy announces that he has ordered the Interstate Commerce Commission to enact stricter regulations and fines for buses and facilities that refuse to integrate.The police couldn't handle the ensuing riot, or insurrection, as it's called by many in Detroit, and the governor, George Romney called out the National Guard.
That wasn't enough. The 82nd Airborne flew in and Cyrus Vance, the special assistant to the Secretary of Defense, flew in to manage the situation for the White House. More than forty people were killed, countless more were arrested and block after block of the city was torched.
The city has never been the same. White flight became a wholesale exodus as they abandoned Detroit en masse. The American promise hadn't made it to everyone and the Johnson administration was so tapped out trying to fight its war on poverty while conducting a shooting war in Vietnam that there were no more resources to throw at the problems confronting us here on the home front.
All we could do was shoot some looters, jail some more and wait for the paroxysm of anger to dissipate so the tanks and soldiers could redeploy.
A missed opportunity of grave consequences. King Rose Archives.Comment supprimer mon compte fdj
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Embed from Getty Images. Online Sources: Riots, Protests, Sit-ins, etc. As residents around San Francisco's Third Street vented their frustration over living conditions and the fatal shooting of Matthew 'Peanut' Johnson, the National Guard was called out.
Anti-War Demonstrators Storm Pentagon, more Baltimore ' Riots and Rebirth more British news report on protests at Berkeley Between the yearsstudent unrest dominated college life. Students at SJSC responded to national and local issues that included civil rights, equal access to housing, student clubs and organizations, athletics, demands for relevant curriculum, and protest against the escalation of the Vietnam War, that included protests against the draft and the presence of the ROTC and DOW Chemical on campus.
Documents provided by the Civil Rights Movement website. First Person: Sitting-in at the Lunch Counter more Martin Luther King Jr.
How the L.
Times covered the Watts Riots more I Raised My Hand to Volunteer moreThe civil rights movement was a struggle for social justice that took place mainly during the s and s for Black Americans to gain equal rights under the law in the United States. By the midth century, Black Americans had had more than enough of prejudice and violence against them. They, along with many white Americans, mobilized and began an unprecedented fight for equality that spanned two decades.
During ReconstructionBlack people took on leadership roles like never before. They held public office and sought legislative changes for equality and the right to vote. Inthe 14th Amendment to the Constitution gave Black people equal protection under the law. Inthe 15th Amendment granted Black American men the right to vote.
To make matters worse, laws were passed in some states to limit voting rights for Black Americans. Moreover, southern segregation gained ground in when the U. Supreme Court declared in Plessy v. Prior to World War IImost Black people worked as low-wage farmers, factory workers, domestics or servants.
They were also discouraged from joining the military. After thousands of Black people threatened to march on Washington to demand equal employment rights, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order on June 25, It opened national defense jobs and other government jobs to all Americans regardless of race, creed, color or national origin.
Black men and women served heroically in World War II, despite suffering segregation and discrimination during their deployment. The Tuskegee Airmen broke the racial barrier to become the first Black military aviators in the U.
Civil Rights Movement Timeline From 1960 to 1964
Yet many Black veterans met with prejudice and scorn upon returning home. This was a stark contrast to why America had entered the war to begin with—to defend freedom and democracy in the world.
As the Cold War began, President Harry Truman initiated a civil rights agenda, and in issued Executive Order to end discrimination in the military. These events helped set the stage for grass-roots initiatives to enact racial equality legislation and incite the civil rights movement. On December 1,a year-old woman named Rosa Parks found a seat on a Montgomery, Alabama bus after work.
Segregation laws at the time stated Black passengers must sit in designated seats at the back of the bus, and Parks had complied. Parks refused and was arrested. The Montgomery Bus Boycott lasted days. On November 14, the Supreme Court ruled segregated seating was unconstitutional.
Inthe civil rights movement gained momentum when the United States Supreme Court made segregation illegal in public schools in the case of Brown v. Board of Education. InCentral High School in Little Rock, Arkansas asked for volunteers from all-Black high schools to attend the formerly segregated school. The Little Rock Nine tried again a couple of weeks later and made it inside, but had to be removed for their safety when violence ensued. Finally, President Dwight D.
Eisenhower intervened and ordered federal troops to escort the Little Rock Nine to and from classes at Central High.
Still, the students faced continual harassment and prejudice. Their efforts, however, brought much-needed attention to the issue of desegregation and fueled protests on both sides of the issue. Even though all Americans had gained the right to vote, many southern states made it difficult for Black citizens.
They often required prospective voters of color to take literacy tests that were confusing, misleading and nearly impossible to pass.Use the tabs at the left to find reference works background informationbooks and articles, and primary sources for your research topics. Below are a few highlighted resources you can use to get started with your research:.
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